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Information Hyperlinked Over Proteins (iHOP), created by Robert Hoffman, is a free resource which uses the genes and proteins listed in PubMed as hyperlinks between sentences and abstracts.[1] The iHOP network contains more than 2,700 organisms, 110,000 genes, and 28.2 million sentences and is updated daily.[2]


Through the home page, users can search for a gene synonym or accession number.[1] A drop-down menu beside the search form can limit the search to all fields, synonyms, any accession number, NCBI Gene, UniProt, or Google. Users can also limit the search to genes of specific organisms via a second drop-down menu.

The hit list contains a list of genes that match the query, including gene symbol, name, synonym/DB-reference, and organism. Users can select to view the following record views for each gene:[1]

  • Defining information for this gene - This view contains all sentences found in the literature that mention the main gene (gene X) together with relevant biomedical terms (e.g. lymphoma). Sentences are ranked by significance. Click on the "double paper" icon beside sentences to read the corresponding abstracts or full text papers. Interesting sentences can be collected into a Gene model by clicking on the "plus sign" icon.
  • Interaction information for this gene - This view contains all sentences found in the literature for the main gene of a page (gene A) and other genes (gene B). Gen symbols within sentences are hyperlinked. Therefore, clicking on a gene symbol (e.g. gene B) will bring you to the page of gene B. Besides literature information, these pages contain interactions collected from external resources (e.g. large scale experimental data). Users can access this interaction data by clicking on the "beaker" icon beside each sentence.
  • Most recent information for this gene
  • Minimal information for this gene - General information (symbol, name, organism, etc.), Useful links to external resources (e.g. UniProt, NCBI, OMIM, etc.), links to other iHOP views on this gene, homologues, enhanced PubMed/Google query.

From each view, users can conduct an enhanced PubMed/Google query, which allows the user to search in PubMed or Google for the specific gene and all synonyms and orthographic variations.[1] Users can customize the search results through the options in the side menu "Filter and options." Users can also add relevant sentences to the Gene Model (through the "plus sign" icon beside sentences), and the results are stored in the Gene Model list.[1] Associations between the sentences are displayed in graph format, and users can load, email, or export the model and download PubMed citations.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "iHOP - Information Hyperlinked over Proteins ." iHOP website, http://www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP/help.html. Accessed September 13, 2011.
  2. "iHOP." iHOP website, http://www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP/?search=&field=all&ncbi_tax_id=0&organism_syn=. Accessed September 13, 2011.

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